From the book The cashless conspiracy. In the modern sense, the idea arose to public cashless purchases in 1949.
Long before the actual cash used to other things that money. Shell used such as money in Polynesia. Other examples of "money" were stones, feathers, fish hooks and even livestock.
Even in ancient Egypt and the Roman Empire used cashless payments, for example, at spannmålsköp. The company Western Union was founded in the US city of Rochester in New York State. It has its roots back to 1851 when it was called the Mississippi Printing Telegraph Company. Western Union has primarily worked with that sent money and telegrams worldwide. A sort of early credit cards were already in the 1890 century in Europe. 1914 began at Western Union with cashless purchases with a credit card that could be used in the deals they agreed.
The actual credit cards originated in the 20th century, the United States issued by such oil companies and hotel chains. One factor contributing to the growing use of these older cards were increased motoring when oil companies began to issue cards. Department stores also began during this decade to publish a sort of identification tokens to customers who traded on credit. Although the department store NK used in the decades prior to the actual credit cards brass tokens. Sweden's first "credit card" was the so-called NK-card therefore was actually a numbered mässingspollett. In the 60s gave NK the own credit cards in the modern sense of the US model.
Some companies began in childhood cards offer credit and debit cards to their best customers. These were cumbersome to use and completely tied to the company in question. Shops and other businesses then had their own cards. Around 1938 began to accept each other's cards. The cards were made in the 30s of the sheet to reduce the risk of counterfeiting. John Biggins of the Flatbush National Bank of Brooklyn invented the first credit card issued by a bank in 1946. The program, called ChargeIT Linked purchases between bank customers and local merchants.
In the modern sense, the idea arose to public cashless purchases in 1949. A man named Frank McNamara ate at the restaurant Major's Cabin Grill next to the Empire State Building in which his credit unions Hamilton Credit Corporation had his office. With him was his friend Alfred Bloomingdale and lawyer Ralph Schneider. They discussed the problems of a client who had lent their different credit cards to neighbors and when many of them could not pay back could not the customer pay its debt to McNamara company.
McNamara also discovered that he had not been with her wallet to pay for the meal. By writing his signature on a business card he gave to the restaurant could be a bill later passed. According to the general opinion interacted these two things that McNamara had the idea for what would become the actual credit card. In 1950 he founded the company Diners Club along with his lawyer Schneider.
The company became an intermediary between customers and the companies they bought from. On the first cards written payment agencies' names on the cards. The cards are used much of the drummer for the payment of meals. Diners Club cards were initially charge cards which meant that they paid everything owed each month.
Bloomingdale was for a period a partner in the company. Otherwise, he was most famous as the heir to the department store Bloomingdale's and its notorious förhållade with photo model Vicki Morgan. Another important person in the Diners Club history Matty Simmons. Simmons was during a period of vice president of Diners Club but is most famous as a television and film producer.
The American cashless snowball was now rolling and got bigger and bigger every year. One step was when the first bank issued debit card began to be issued in 1951 by the Franklin National Bank of Long Island. Soon, Diners Club competition and more of these companies grew to large credit card giants.
American Express was founded in 1850 in Buffalo to carry out the express mail service. Later expanded with cash transports and activities in the travel industry. Henry Wells founded the American Express along with William Fargo and John Butterfield. Three carriers were merged into one. In the late 50th century, started the credit card operations in competition with Diners Club. The company has also had its tentacles in the television world. American Express has had its headquarters in various buildings in New York.
A time for American Express was founded also now Wells Fargo of people with the same name. Wells Fargo was later named one of the world's largest banks. American Express and Wells Fargo's history is so intertwined that it is difficult to distinguish. As the American Express launched its first card in 1958 as introduced also account credit. It is preferably businessmen who have been using American Express cards. American Express has recently been working with the major retail chain Walmart by which one gives out the prepaid card Bluebird Prepaid Card.
American Express considers itself to be so exclusive that in terms of the most expensive cards are not dealing directly with marketing. Customers are considered more become members of an exclusive club.
The recruitment is more reminiscent of a Masonic lodge than a business. The company organizes the oddest purchases and services for customers. The design is somewhat reminiscent of the Rolls-Royce treatment of their customers. But the cards luxurious appearance should not be compared to a luxury car. Rather they are "an old rotten trolley with dung." It happens from time to time in the book. The hatred of the credit card gets writer's brain to switch from logic to lightning negative emotions.
The more exclusive versions of American Express cards have therefore been "celebrity card" has been used by everything from Elvis to Zlatan. Some rappers have even written lyrics for his beloved card. This book probably has previously given the impression of being merely a fact. It is studded with arguments against credit cards and other cashless. But the book is also a "hatbok" towards cashless and actually (speaking of Zlatan) written by a football crazy writer.
But hatred is supported by the facts. Dyngkärran above, however, was an exception caused by a spontaneous synapsfyrverkeri. Just as the fight against such as child pornography and racism easily becomes personal because of feelings of anger and disgust as also problems around the book's subjects become personal to the author. There have been private all the time.
Sometimes switching the book to more personal and conversational language and content, and then return to "formal encyclopedia mentality". Let me now set the tone for the personal parts of the book. If Zlatan reading this book, I hope he leads by example as the super dude he is and gets rid of its "luxury" American Express cards. Doing what he does best. Tape the credit card of a football. Kick then the ball far out in the woods where no one can find it. Where can it all be so wild animals appropriately to urinate on the card. How can the author be this angry emotional? Read the book and find out why.
MasterCard (founded 1966) is rather a cooperative organization with several thousand banks that members than a purely
Companies in the normal sense. There is a limited company that sells card licenses. MasterCard's early history is linked to the two banking organizations for credit cards. Interbank and WSBA. It created a project for credit card called Master Charge. Master Charge was later renamed MasterCard. The start of it developed into a global card company was a collaboration between Master Charge and the Mexican bank Banco Nacional. A detail of the story was the legal conflict that arose by Worthern Bank is not allowed to join Master Charge. MasterCard's headquarters are now in the city of Purchase in New York State.
The show is similar to MasterCard a cooperative organization. The company is owned by a business association consisting mainly of banks. There are strong links with Bank of America was the first bank started issuing Visa predecessor BankAmericard 1958. First card could BankAmericard used only in California. It was forbidden to conduct banking across state borders. This skirted it by licensing the card to other banks. Most credit cards
was spun off from the Bank of America to become the non-listed company and member-owned National BankAmericard.
A time before show received its current name as they gave out their first credit card called Entrée. It was a debit card that was linked to the then newly emerging computer systems for authentication called BASE I and BASE II. Corresponding systems Master Charge called INAS and INET.
The parts of the View that were outside the United States were sold in 1974 and became a subsidiary of a group of banks called IBANCO. The company was named the National BankAmericard eventually on to Visa USA. IBANCO renamed finally about to Visa International. The first mailing of the company's credit card was in the city of Fresno, at the initiative of Joseph Williams. Then came mailings in other cities in California. The project was marred at all times of both criticism and fraud. 1970 changed all names to the show. Globalization of credit cards began early with US banks abandoned their own card system and joined either Master Charge or BankAmericard who then later became MasterCard and Visa.
View received in 1987 a mandate to take care of the entire retail network Interlink for bank cards (the largest network of this type in the United States). In the '90s launched Smart Card Visa Cash that could be loaded with funds via ATMs. View pushed the development from magnetic stripe to chip cards including something called Partner Program. In Manhattan, the banks Citibank and Chase Manhattan in the late 90s a test card that was completely unsuccessful. Often, people charged the card just once. A partnership with Internet search company Yahoo began to create a purchase page on the Internet. See also opened quite utkonkurerat cooperation with Microsoft that people could do their banking transactions at your computer. Display is headquartered in Fresno in California.
American Express and Diners Club credit cards give themselves out while Visa and MasterCard do not. In the latter case, it is primarily the member banks that issue cards. An important difference between credit card companies is that some so to say the acting bank, while others do not. Visa and MasterCard cards data communication network differs technically very different. MasterCard system, called Banknet, Visa's VisaNet.
Visa and MasterCard are thus controlled by the member banks as card users are in fact completely in the hands of these banks. The competition between Visa and MasterCard are practically nonexistent because most banks that are members of one organization are also members of the other.
Discover Financial Services or just short Discover is another major US credit card companies. It was founded in 1985 by division of the finance company Dean Witter and became part of Sears.
Discover became an independent company in 2007. It gives the card Discover Card. The technical card networks called Discover Network and Pulse. Headquartered in suburban Chicago. 2008 bought Discover the Diners Club of the financial group Citigroup.
Sears, Roebuck & Co. was founded in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah C. Roebuck. Sears became over time including the largest US mail-order companies. Sears is also associated with skyscraper Sears Tower in Chicago is now called the Willis Tower. The skyscraper which for a time was the world's tallest building was owned until 2004 by Sears.
The check can lead their origin back to the 1200s. But use really took off only when the checks started to be used by goldsmiths in England. Checks have been throughout history, is sometimes used as cash. An example of this was when the soldiers in the 50s in Hong Kong used the checks as a cash payment. Every trader signed the check in Chinese with each purchase. It could happen that a soldier several months later saw a check which he had himself had in his possession.
Credit card and check functioning banking terms in a similar way. The account holder writes a check for the amount of which the recipient can then redeem at a bank. Checking account may be credited (compare credit cards). Someone described teaching the check as a "snail's version of bank card". In kontantlöshetens childhood talked as much about the check solving society about the cashless.
A man already in the 60 century vurmade for this check and cashless society where John Diebold. His consulting company Diebold Group created several computer-based network of banks in this decade. Diebold's thinking influenced George Mitchell who had a senior position in the Federal Reserve (US central bank). The latter tried to influence the US banks to switch to computerized systems. It claimed that the checks were expensive, which was very similar to today's arguments for cash.
It was people like these that affect the organization the American Bankers Association (ABA) to 1976 to investigate the possibility of a future check loose and cashless society. It also formed a committee called Check Less Society Committee. In the center of this was ABA head of automation Dale Reistad. The United States is not only "kontantlöshetens father" but also contradictory, always check the country's number one. Checks there have also been sent to the companies concerned upon payment of regular bills.
In the early 90's was the seventh payment in Sweden by check. In the 2000s, the figure is microscopic 0.1 percent. With time ended Swedish banks thus more and more checks. None of the Swedish banks dared only charging for checks. Then, when a Swedish bank finally made it followed the other for the check and fate was sealed length. As curiosity is that check fraud is a crime throughout the United States but not to overdraw the credit account.
Long before the actual cash used to other things that money. Shell used such as money in Polynesia. Other examples of "money" were stones, feathers, fish hooks and even livestock. In the absence of regular coins have the oddest payment sometimes used. For example, they used iron bars as currency in Sparta because they were isolated from the outside world.
Southwest coins started to be used in parts of Asia Minor in 600 BC Near East was about what we now call the Middle East. It was the lydiske King Croesus who in 500 BC began minting coins of silver and gold. He was also called Croesus and thereof the word of an immensely rich person. Where there was a shortage of the precious metals used to largely copper. This happened, for example, early in Rome. During the Viking Age were imported much coins to Sweden from both the Islamic world and from parts of Europe. For the Vikings was the silver value, so to speak currency. Therefore, even obsolete coins of silver and various silver items as payment. Later in the story, there were large copper plates that applied to money.
The first Swedish silver coins were minted in Sigtuna around the year 1000. In the early 1500s began to count pennies. Beginning in the mid-1800s began in Sweden use a head coins (crowns and then crowns), which was divided into 100 cents. When one of Sweden abandoned the gold standard in 1931 disappeared the actual difference between coins and bills. The gold standard meant in praktien of banknotes could be exchanged for gold from a gold reserve. This and banknotes in general was based on a promise of and confidence in the state. A trust for the state as it is now should not rely on. The financial incompetence is extremely widespread. But rather bad faith in cash than a slave to an unconscionable cashless society which does not inspire any confidence at all.
Banknote history and development is closely linked to the art of printing. They were originally a form of receipts or debt before they became actual payment. Banknotes tillverkads first in China at about the same time as the actual coins started coming (600 BC). Then began the use of banknotes as slowly spread from China to Europe in the Middle Ages. It was actually in Sweden and one in the 1600s for the first time gave proper banknotes in Europe. First, by Stockholms Banco, then the Realm signboards bank and finally the Riksbank at the end of the 1800s. Earlier pressed other banks than the Riksbank's own notes. Next to Sweden, England has printed banknotes at.
Numismatics is the study of all the coins. It also includes greedily fiddling with and search for tokens, banknotes and medals. Even as a little boy, the author was fascinated by the thick coin catalogs that existed at the library. Collecting coins and the like is not just about getting fun objects in their possession to cherish, twist and turn and finally stopping in small pockets in a coin folder. It is also a way to learn about history in the same way as stamp collecting can be a way to learn about other countries. Sometimes the coins to be almost the only real contact with a historical period.
Coin Collecting is one of those hobbies where there is a huge literature. The first Swedish numismatikern was Elias Brenner. He wrote at the end of the 1600s the work of coins whose title in Swedish well would be something like "Coin dictionary of Svea and Göters country". This section is also in place with a recommendation to visit Coin Cabinet in Stockholm. There are also interesting coin collections in other Swedish cities. Coin Cabinet is cash the own museum and the largest numismatic collection in Sweden. It became a separate museum in 1975 and moved a couple of decades later to Castle Hill.
One of this book's basic message is to show how the world is more and more approaching a total cashless dictatorship. The more cash to disappear the more you lose the wonderful numismatics unfortunately his fascination by cutting with a knife
at the end of a world-historical rope even though it passes through a large part of the story then finally breaks. Now it's unfortunately time to stop before the author begins to write a book about coins and their history. This book is certainly most about preserving modern cash. But this is a serious request. Swedish numismatists and coin collectors! Unite! Helping to fight to preserve the old and new cash. Fight against the cashless establishment militants of history.
To be continued...
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