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SET standard

SET is based on encryption, digital certificates and digital signatures (corresponding signatures at regular card purchases).

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SET requires some software installed in the computers. When the buyer filled their digital shopping basket and select "pay with credit cards" takes various communications. Certificates are sent back and forth, a dual digital pay orders are created and given control of the bank is made. For out of the encryption keys that arise in the supermarket so there is a so-called root key for all users and is built into the software.


Av CashOnly
torsdag 7 november 2019 23:15

SET is a project and a global standard to pay securely with credit cards on the Internet. It is mainly about electronic commerce and payment of bills. The project was started in the mid 90s. The acronym stands for Secure Electronic Transaction which in Swedish is secure electronic transaction. Behind the standard's creation were large companies such as Visa, MasterCard, IBM, Microsoft and Netscape. When it was a pilot project participated from Sweden some large banks and Postal Giro.

SET is based on encryption, digital certificates and digital signatures (corresponding signatures at regular card purchases). Technical Data created a so-called virtual ( "artificial") cards including the use of the digital certificate and by an encrypted credit card number is sent. It's the banks and firm Verisign who control and issue certificates to both card users and businesses. Verisign is a subcontractor to the show. Merchant different certificates can be compared to the payment stamp it past used when making a deduction for credit card purchase.

SET requires some software installed in the computers. When the buyer filled their digital shopping basket and select "pay with credit cards" takes various communications. Certificates are sent back and forth, a dual digital pay orders are created and given control of the bank is made. For out of the encryption keys that arise in the supermarket so there is a so-called root key for all users and is built into the software.

Cyber ​​Cash has helped develop the SET and also has a similar system called SIPS. SET and CyberCash uses the same type of encryption. Verifone is another neighboring companies using the SET standard, and that was when it was tested. With the SET and similar systems, you can not transfer money between individuals, as countries try to prevent money laundering and the like. As with so much else cashless then use the SET not to small payments because of high management costs.

Computers and computer companies - the electronic world of finance spine

It was in the '50s as banks gradually began to use computers and telecommunications technology in their operations. Some thought even at that time on a cashless system has spread across the United States that would be linked to an identity. They called the possible future system of EFTS (Electronic Funds Transfer System). But it was during the '60s as developments related to computers started properly. It was the bank middle managers strongest vurmade for computerization in this earlier stage. One was John Reed at Citibank (later chairman of the board there) who made an entire branch became automated.

This computerization enthusiasm among middle managers were not only in the United States. Even in Spain, worked them into something called COAS (Commission of Operations and Automation). One of the very earliest tests in the United States of instant payments linked to a kind of ID card was made in 1967 in Wilmington led by Bank of Delaware. It was IBM originally invented magnetremsetekniken the talking has been described as "a gift from the IT world to the world of banking."

In Sweden Savings Promotion of leading personal Sven G Svensson early advocate for the computerization of the savings banks. As early as the 50th century was held annual conferences in Saltsjöbaden related to banking computerization. 90s was the decade when the Internet entered the business world. Companies often started with other activities but ultimately become major computer company. These are then often merged into huge corporate giants.

Burroughs was such a large computer company, with emphasis on the banking world. Burroughs built including SWIFT. This is an international system for communication between banks. A previous large independent companies were Sperry. Burroughs director Michael Blumenthal, succeeded in 1986 to merge Burroughs and Sperry to Unisys. Blumenthal had also previously been the Finance Minister.

Another important historical companies in this context, Remington Rand. Unisys business has consisted, inter alia in to continue work on SWIFT and to take care of a huge system of RFID-tagged containers for the military's behalf. RFID is a technology that transmits small amounts of information using radio waves. As we shall see, by the rest of the book is that in terms of RFID many connections to the cashless society. Microsoft's operating system is used in ATMs have already been mentioned. The Linux operating system has also been used in these, the majority of Internet servers and larger computer systems to supercomputers.

Another company example, in Finland and Sweden active IT company Tieto among other things syssIar by credit card issuance at multiple banks. Facebook has gone into the payment industry seriously. The company launched a virtual (apparent or even artificial) currency in 2011 and computer game companies

hung immediately on. Facebook also planned to 500 million users would be able to pay by credit card via chatappen Messenger. Using a chat software means that you "talk to text." It sends sentences between them gradually (see telephone talk), unlike e-mail and regular mail.

Facebook has also been a tool for fraudsters, such as creating a Ica -like side through which in some cases robbed people of thousands of kronor by alleged profits in a competition. This could be done by collecting data on bank boxes. Company Apple has built up a huge database of credit card data for customers who have cards. The computer companies want a cashless society is partly because it is intimately linked to their products. The more cashless the more computers.

As the reader probably guessed because of the language, there is no 20-year-old who wrote this book. Has worked with computers in one way or another for quite a few years. How old I am, I would not, however, mention because of privacy reasons. A spontaneous subjective iaktagelse. It would take a lifetime, and the writing of almost half this book before I'd come across a single negative reaction towards the cashless society from the computer industry's side. But it is about something that happened almost 50 years ago. Today's computer world does not seem to have taken their senses and seen how negative the cashless society.

The exception is about a man named Paul Armer from the RAND Corporation, and already in the late 60's high-profile privacy issues around cashless payments. He spoke of this in the US Senate. We would need more such men and women in the computer world today. There is of course critical former bank people. But where is the criticism from the computer world? Armer claimed not even to remove the name from the records does that to some extent can identify individuals.

In his work needed Armer at a time, the data on wages in the computer industry. This was not that he made a business on punch cards to store data in what he first thought anonymous way. The data consisted solely of salary, education and a gross geographic split into three areas. When Paul Armer then sorted the items in the order, he could immediately (which was not intended from the beginning) see who it was about who had the highest salaries. This was the start of his commitment to the discussion of privacy versus the future integrity of the deficit as regards cashless payments.

Perhaps the most important connection between kontantlöshet and computers is that they are cashless so-called e-money, except that is stored on prepaid cards is also stored on computer servers in the form of so-called network money. If you consider how insecure computers, so maybe it instead would be safer to stop the circulation of the hamster cage.

For those who only have a certain interest in computers, I recommend not to buy a computer. Do not buy a computer just because it might be good to have sometimes. You can live without. It is the same principle as not to buy a car that is almost just standing in the garage. Because computer companies insist more and more with trying to foist on us kontantlöshet and Big Brother so they will not sell as much computers as they wish. It is also very useful and fun thing to do with a computer. A big reason why I still hold on to computers is to write these books. The computer is excellent as libraries, typewriter and clean toy.

But I'll be honest, my interest in computers died a little each and every time I have written in this book. One thing is certain. If the total cashless society is upon us, there's only one thing to recommend. Total and general technology boycott. Not the kind of thing that has to hushållsabetet to do but everything else that has a communicative and informative function. It is an honest advice from a writer who really love technology. In theory, a sufficiently large partial technology boycott kill kontantlösheten. It can not exist without technology. Cash can manage without electricity and technology (except with regard to manufacturing). They have done so for several centuries.

Although I want to continue to use the computer so it does not mean that several times I fantasized about the idea that simply end up with computers. Wondered what life would be and act without. The community monitors and controls the citizens more and more by computers. There seems to be no end to the misery. So anyway, you can get a little more restrictive, and as always thinking about what you do on your computer.

When the cashless society will fully show its ugly face, maybe I'll wish I had played soccer in a completely serious plan in place to have computers as one of my interests. Maybe should have been some kind of militant activist in place that had broken early home computers and PCs with an iron pipe. Stood outside the mainframe computer centers with placards that read "Death to the computer!". But then on the other hand, probably not this book came to be.

There may be those who see me as a technical reactionaries. That is not the case at all. What I would most like the man with the go will skip muddy cashless ditch. To do this, one must first take a few steps backward. Since technology can be fully utilized for positive things again. Finally, it can easily conclude that without the invention of the computer would not cashless society is in its proper modern form.

We are the consumers who pay payments

How said the Deputy Governor Lars Nyberg literally at a lecture on the Financial Sector Union Congress in Balsta in 2008.

"It's easy at first thought to believe that there is trade and the banks who kindly pay for the payments. But is not that simple. Merchants need to have their costs covered, otherwise they can not conduct their business. And the same goes for banks. Therefore, popping cost of all payments eventually up to mark on the goods and services we buy. the milk and vegetables may be a bit more expensive in the store and deposit rates a bit lower in the bank than would otherwise be the case. so it is consumers and bank customers in ultimately pay the cost of all payments. But we do not see them. Therefore, we are led to believe that they are - or that someone else is paying. "

It said therefore, a person within the Riksbank, for once, the naked truth. There are clients and consumers who pay the payments. Let us now avoid nagging about how much cash payments charged to trade and banks. The banks which, incidentally, on average earn several hundred dollars in pure profit per Swedish year. However, you can talk about "poor trade" when it can not deposit their daily takings at the bank. National Bank wants people to use more credit cards to make it as erroneously claiming more "economically optimal". Nyberg wanted also understood this but did away completely by telling the truth.

At a lecture in the mid 90's when Stefan Ingves was the deputy governor's statement, he follows.

"For banks, as well as the outlets of various types, handling of notes and coins as a result of småvärdestransaktioner quite costly."

"In a broader sense, it is desirable that more transactions are conducted electronically since thereby today's expensive paper-based processing can be further reduced."

Ingves first statement is thus completely false. It is consumers and not the bank, and trade that ultimately takes the cost of the payments. The second statement contradicts the Riksbank's so-called "neutrality". That is, it is the population's demand for cash that control the crowd. It advocates the Riksbank open kontantlösheten.

It is true that as yet itself can decide whether to use cash or credit cards. But when people constantly brainwashed by banks, media, government agencies and others to prioritize cashless option as it has in the psychological sense, removed a large part of the decision. Unfortunately, many people just to avoid nagging or when you are deceived by false advantages yields. For many of us it is rather a stimulus to resistance. The cost of credit cards is kept secret to the very large number of banks and credit card companies. In addition, only banks and credit card companies have an eye on what is actually happening at kontantlösbrott.

Large parts of the cash handling industry often has no concrete figures to show but "know" yet that management is "extremely expensive". Different organizations and people complain bitterly that "cash handling costs enormous sums." Just like in terms of actual payments, it is we, the consumers who ultimately also pay cash management. Business owner takes the not money out of his own wallet, for example, pay in cash handling, Loomis. Initially, banks make most of fees for payments in trade but in the end it is the consumer who pays. Now we have established who ultimately pay both payments and cash management. It is therefore time to stop whining establishment.

In many other contexts written only that the payments will cost the business money. It does not distinguish between the real social costs, business costs and the individual's expense. It is arbitrary to talk about any of the three different costs depending on what favors propaganda. The thing that should always apply is who ultimately pays. In this case consumers.


Publicerades torsdag 7 november 2019 23:15:44 +0100 i kategorin Följetong och i ämnena:


1 kommentarer


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fredag 8 november 2019 03:50


Hej Christer.

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Eller om kan du tipsa om var man kan köpa boken?


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måndag 18 november 2019 02:16
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