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Kontantlöshetens "tsufa" da kuma farkon tarihin

Daga cikin littafin The cashless hadin kai. A zamani ji, da ra'ayin tashi zuwa jama'a cashless sayayya a shekarar 1949.

Credit cards. 

Long kafin ainihin tsabar kudi amfani ga sauran abubuwa da cewa kudi. Shell amfani kamar kudi a Polynesia. Sauran misalai na "kudi" kasance duwãtsu, gashinsa, kifi hooks kuma ko da dabbobi da yawa.


Av CashOnly
torsdag 3 oktober 2019 18:29
Bok/Följetong

Ko a zamanin d Misira da kuma Roman Empire amfani cashless biya, misali, a spannmålsköp. Kamfanin Western Union da aka kafa a Amurka birnin Rochester a New York State. Yana yana da nasa tushen da baya a 1851 a lokacin da aka kira Mississippi Bugun tangarahu Company. Western Union ya da farko ya yi aiki tare da cewa aika kudi da kuma telegrams a dukan duniya. A irin farkon katunan bashi sun riga a 1890 karni a Turai. 1914 ya fara a Western Union da cashless sayayya tare da katin bashi da za a iya amfani da a kulla da suka amince.

Da ainihin katunan bashi samo asali a cikin karni na 20th, Amurka bayar da irin wannan kamfanonin mai da kuma hotel sarƙoƙi. Daya factor bayar da tasu gudunmuwar da girma yin amfani da wadannan mazan katunan da aka ƙãra motoring lokacin da kamfanonin mai ya fara fitowa cards. Idara ma ya fara a lokacin wannan shekaru goma zuwa buga wani irin ganewa Alamu to abokan ciniki da suka yi ciniki a kan bashi. Ko da yake sashen kantin sayar NK amfani a cikin shekarun da suka gabata kafin ainihin katunan bashi tagulla Alamu. Sweden ta farko "katin bashi" shi ne abin da ake kira NK-katin haka ya zahiri a ƙidaya mässingspollett. A cikin 60s ya NK da nasu katunan bashi a cikin zamani ji na Amurka samfurin.

Wasu kamfanonin fara a cikin shimfiɗar jariri cards bayar da bashi da zare kudi katunan da mafi kyau abokan ciniki. Waɗannan su ne amfani da tsauraran matakan yin amfani da da kuma gaba daya daura da kamfanin a cikin tambaya. Da shaguna da kuma sauran harkokin kasuwanci sa'an nan ya nasu cards. Around 1938 ya fara yarda da juna ta cards. A katunan da aka sanya a cikin 30s na takardar to rage hadarin kayayyakin na jabu. John Biggins na Flatbush National Bank of Brooklyn ƙirƙira farko katin bashi bayar da wani banki a 1946. A shirin, da ake kira ChargeIT nasaba sayayya tsakanin banki abokan ciniki da kuma gida fatake.

Ta yaya shi duka sosai ya fara - diners Club

A zamani ji, da ra'ayin tashi zuwa jama'a cashless sayayya a 1949. Wani mutum mai suna Frank McNamara cin abinci a gidan cin abinci Major ta Cabin gasa gaba da Empire State Building a cikinsa ya bashi kungiya ta kashin Hamilton Credit Corporation da ofishinsa. Tare da shi shi ne abokinsa Alfred Bloomingdale kuma lauya Ralph Schneider. Sun tattauna matsalolin da na wani abokin ciniki wanda ya lent su daban-daban katunan bashi zuwa makwabta da kuma lokacin da da yawa daga cikinsu ba su iya biya da baya iya ba abokin ciniki biya ta bashin McNamara kamfanin.

McNamara kuma gano cewa ya ba su kasance a tare da ita alabe biya ga ci abinci. By rubutu ya sanya hannu a kan wani kasuwanci da katin ya ba da gidan cin abinci na iya zama doka daga baya wuce. Bisa ga janar ra'ayi yin mu'amala da wadannan abubuwa biyu da McNamara da ra'ayin abin da zai zama ainihin katin bashi. A 1950 ne ya kafa kamfanin diners Club tare da lauya Schneider.

Kamfanin ya zama wani tsakiya tsakanin abokan ciniki da kuma kamfanonin da suka sayi daga. A farko katunan rubuta biya hukumomin 'sunayen kan cards. A cards ake amfani da yawa daga cikin ɗan ganga don biyan bashin da na abinci. Diners Club cards sun farko cajin cards wanda nufi da cewa sun biya kome binta kowane wata.

Bloomingdale ya ga wani lokaci da wani abokin tarayya a cikin kamfanin. In ba haka ba, ya kasance mafi shahara a matsayin magaji zuwa sashen kantin sayar Bloomingdale ta, kuma ta sananne förhållade tare da photo model Vicki Morgan. Wani muhimmin mutum a cikin diners Club tarihi Matty Simmons. Simmons ya a lokacin wani lokaci na mataimakin shugaban diners Club amma shi ne ya fi shahara a matsayin talabijin da kuma film m.

A American cashless snowball ya yanzu mirgina kuma samu girma da kuma girma a kowace shekara. Daya mataki shi ne lokacin da na farko banki bayar zare kudi da katin fara da za a bayar a 1951 da Franklin National Bank of Long Island. Ba da da ewa, diners Club gasar kuma mafi daga wadannan kamfanonin girma zuwa babban katin bashi Refayawa.

American Express da kuma Wells Fargo

American Express da aka kafa a 1850 a Buffalo a gudanar da wani da kar mail sabis. Daga baya fadada tare da tsabar kudi transports da kuma ayyukan da a cikin tafiya masana'antu. Henry Wells kafa American Express tare da William Fargo da Yahaya Butterfield. Uku dako aka garwaya a cikin daya. A cikin marigayi 50th karni, fara katin bashi da gudanar da gasar tare da diners Club. Kamfanin ya kuma yi ta tentacles a talabijin duniya. American Express ya na da hedkwata a daban-daban gine-gine a New York.

A lokacin American Express da aka kafa ma yanzu Wells Fargo mutane tare da wannan sunan. Wells Fargo da aka daga baya suna daya daga cikin duniya most bankuna. American Express da kuma Wells Fargo ta tarihi da aka haka lauye da cewa yana da wuya a bambanta. Kamar yadda American Express farko suka kaddamar da katin a shekarar 1958 kamar yadda ya gabatar ma asusu bashi. Shi ne zai fi dacewa kasuwa wanda aka yin amfani da American Express cards. American Express ta kwanan nan aka aiki tare da manyan kiri sarkar Walmart da wanda daya ba daga cikin aka biya kafin lokaci katin Bluebird aka biya kafin lokaci Card.

American Express ya wadãtu da kansa ya zama haka m cewa a cikin sharuddan mafi tsada cards ba su tafiyad kai tsaye tare da marketing. Customers suna dauke mafi zama membobin wata, tsattsarkar kulob din.

A daukar ma'aikata ne mafi reminiscent na wani Masonic Lodge fiye da kasuwanci. Kamfanin shirya da oddest sayayya da kuma ayyuka ga abokan ciniki. The zane ne da ɗan reminiscent na Rolls Royce-lura da su abokan ciniki. Amma katunan marmari bayyanar kamata ba za a idan aka kwatanta da wani alatu mota. Maimakon haka suna "wani tsohon banza trolley da dung." Sai ya faru daga lokaci zuwa lokaci a cikin littafin. Ƙiyayya da katin bashi samun marubuci ta kwakwalwa don canzawa daga dabaru don walƙiya korau motsin zuciyarmu.

A mafi m versions na American Express cards sun haka kasance "Celebrity katin" an yi amfani da duk abin da daga Elvis zuwa Zlatan. Wasu rappers ma sun rubuta lyrics ga ƙaunataccen katin. Wannan littafi mai yiwuwa ta a baya ba da alama na zama kawai a hujja. An studded tare da dalilai da katunan bashi da sauran cashless. Amma littafin ne ma "hatbok" zuwa cashless kuma a zahiri (magana da Zlatan) da aka rubuta ta hanyar kwallon kafa hauka marubuci.

Amma ƙiyayya yana goyan bayan da facts. Dyngkärran sama, duk da haka, ya kasance da wani togiya lalacewa ta hanyar wani yunkri synapsfyrverkeri. Kamar yadda da yaki da kamar yaro batsa da wariyar launin fata sauƙi zama sirri domin ji na fushi da kyama kamar yadda kuma matsaloli a kusa da littafin ta batutuwa zama sirri ga marubucin. Akwai sun kasance masu zaman kansu duk lokaci.

Wani lokaci ya sauya sheka da littafin ya fi sirri da kuma conversational harshe da abun ciki, sa'an nan kuma dawo to "m kundin haukan". Bari in yanzu saita sautin ga sirri sassa na littafin. Idan Zlatan karanta wannan littafi, ina fatan ya kaiwa da misali a matsayin super mutum ya ke da samun kawar da ta "alatu" American Express cards. Yin abin da ya aikata mafi kyau. Tef da katin bashi na a kwallon kafa. Shura sa'an nan da ball nisa daga cikin dazuzzuka inda babu wanda zai iya samun shi. Ina iya shi duka zama haka dabbobin daji ayi kasafi ga urinate a kan katin. Ta yaya za a iya marubucin zama wannan fushi wani tunanin? Karanta littafin da kuma gano dalilin da ya sa.

MasterCard da Visa - gabatarwa

MasterCard (kafa 1966) ne wajen wani m kungiyar da dama dubu bankuna da mambobi fiye da zalla

Kamfanoni a cikin al'ada ma'ana. Akwai wata iyaka kamfanin cewa sayar da katin lasisi. MasterCard ta farkon tarihin yana da nasaba da biyu banki kungiyoyin for katunan bashi. Interbank da WSBA. Yana halitta mai aikin for katin bashi ake kira Jagora Cajin. Jagora Cajin aka daga baya sake masa suna MasterCard. A farkon shi ci gaba a cikin wani duniya katin kamfanin ya mai da haɗin gwiwar tsakanin Jagora Cajin da Mexican banki Banco Nacional. A daki-daki, daga cikin labarin da aka shari'a rikici da ya tashi da Worthern Bank ba a yarda ya shiga Jagora Cajin. MasterCard hedkwatar ne yanzu a birnin Purchase a New York State.

The show ne kama da MasterCard wani m kungiyar. Kamfanin mallakar ta kasuwanci ƙungiya kunsha, yafi na bankuna. Akwai karfi da alaka da Bank of America aka farko banki fara bayarwa Visa gada BankAmericard 1958. farko katin iya BankAmericard amfani ne kawai a California. Yana da aka haramta gudanar da harkar banki a fadin jihar da kan iyakoki. Wannan skirted shi da lasisi da katin zuwa wasu bankuna. Mai katunan bashi

An spun kashe daga Bank of America zama da wadanda ba jera kamfanin da kuma memba-mallakar National BankAmericard.

A lokaci kafin show samu ta yanzu sunan kamar yadda suka ba fita da farko bashi katin kira Entrée. Shi ne mai zare kudi da katin da aka nasaba da nan sabon kunno kai kwamfuta tsarin for Tantance kira Tushe na da tushe II. M tsarin Jagora Cajin kira INAS da INET.

A sassa na View da suke waje da United States aka sayar a shekara ta 1974, kuma ya kasance mai na biyu na wani rukuni na bankuna da ake kira IBANCO. Kamfanin da aka mai suna National BankAmericard ƙarshe a kan su Visa USA. IBANCO sake masa suna karshe game da su Visa International. A farko a aikawa da kamfanin ya bashi katin gari a cikin birnin na Fresno, a shirin na Joseph Williams. Sa'an nan ya zo mailings a wasu birane a California. Aikin da aka yi rikice a duk sau biyu zargi da kuma zamba. 1970 canza duk sunayen da show. Duniya na katunan bashi ya fara farkon tare da US bankuna watsi da nasu katin tsarin da kuma shiga ko dai Jagora Cajin ko BankAmericard wanda sa'an nan daga baya ya zama MasterCard da Visa.

View samu a shekarar 1987 a umarni don kula da dukan kiri cibiyar sadarwa Interlink ga banki cards (most cibiyar sadarwa na irin wannan a Amurka). A cikin '90s kaddamar Smart Katin Visa Cash cewa za a iya ɗora Kwatancen da kudi via ATMs. View tura da ci gaban daga Magnetic stripe don guntu katunan ciki har da wani abu da ake kira Shirin Abokin Hulɗa. A Manhattan, bankunan Citibank da Chase Manhattan a cikin marigayi 90s a gwajin katin cewa shi ne gaba daya m. Sau da yawa, mutane da cajin da katin kawai sau daya. A haɗin gwiwa tare da Internet search kamfanin Yahoo ya fara ƙirƙirar saya page a kan Internet. Dubi kuma bude quite utkonkurerat hadin gwiwa tare da Microsoft da cewa mutane za su yi banki a kwamfutarka. Nuni ne da hedkwatarsa ​​a Fresno a California.

American Express da kuma diners Club katunan bashi ba da kansu daga yayin da Visa da MasterCard yi ba. A karshen harka, shi ne da farko da kungiyar bankuna cewa al'amuranda cards. An muhimmanci bambanci tsakanin katin bashi kamfanonin ne cewa wasu haka to ce da Mukaddashin banki, yayin da wasu ba su da. Visa da MasterCard katunan data sadarwa na cibiyar sadarwa bambanta a zahiri sosai daban-daban. MasterCard tsarin, da ake kira Banknet, Visa ta VisaNet.

Visa da MasterCard haka ne aka sarrafawa da kungiyar bankuna a matsayin katin masu amfani su ne a gaskiya gaba daya a hannun wadannan bankuna. A gasar tsakanin Visa da MasterCard ne kusan ƙarancin saboda mafi bankuna da suke mambobi na daya kungiyar mambobi ne na wasu.

Discover da Sears

Discover Financial Services ko kawai takaice Discover ne wani babbar Amurka katin bashi kamfanonin. Yana da aka kafa a shekarar 1985 ta rabo daga cikin kudi kamfanin Dean Witter kuma ya zama wani ɓangare na Sears.

Discover zama wani m kamfanin a shekarar 2007. Yana bada katin Discover Card. The fasaha katin networks kira Discover hanyar sadarwa da kuma Pulse. Cibiyarsa a kewayen birni Chicago. 2008 sayi Discover da diners Club na kudi kungiyar Citigroup.

Sears, Roebuck & Co. aka kafa a 1886 ta Richard Sears da Alwa C. Roebuck. Sears zama a kan lokaci har da most US mail-domin kamfanoni. Sears ne ma dangantawa da skyscraper Sears Tower a Chicago yanzu ake kira da Willis Tower. A skyscraper wanda a lokacin shi ne duniya ta tallest gini da aka mallakar har 2004 da Sears.

Stale-slayers

The rajistan shiga iya kai su asalin baya zuwa 1200s. Amma amfani da gaske ya kashe kawai a lokacin da cak fara da za a yi amfani da maƙeran zinariya a Ingila. Cak sun kasance a cikin tarihi, an wani lokaci amfani da tsabar kudi. Wani misali na wannan lokacin da sojoji a 50s a Hong Kong amfani da cak a matsayin tsabar kudi biyan bashin. Kowane ciniki hannu cikin rajistan shiga a kasar Sin tare da sayen kowane. Yana iya faruwa da cewa wani soja watanni da dama daga baya suka ga wani rajistan shiga abin da ya kansa ya a mahallinsa.

Katin bashi da kuma rajistan shiga aiki banki sharuddan a irin wannan hanya. The asusun mariƙin rubuta wani rajistan ga adadin wanda za a tura ma iya sa'an nan fanshe a banki. Dubawa asusun iya lasafta (kwatanta katunan bashi). Wani bayyana koyar da rajistan shiga a matsayin "katantanwa ta version na banki katin". A kontantlöshetens yara yi magana kamar yadda da yawa game da rajistan shiga warware jama'a game da cashless.

Wani mutum ya riga a cikin 60 karni vurmade ga wannan rajistan shiga da cashless al'umma inda Yahaya Diebold. Ya tuntubar kamfanin Diebold Group halitta da dama kwamfuta na tushen sadarwa na bankuna a wannan karnin. Diebold ta tunani rinjayi George Mitchell wanda ya wani babban jami'in matsayi a cikin Tarayya Reserve (US babban bankin). A karshen kokarin tasiri cikin US bankuna don canzawa zuwa walwa tsarin. Yana da'awar cewa cak sun tsada, wanda ya yi kama yau muhawara don tsabar kudi.

Yana da aka mutane kamar wadannan da shafi kungiyar da American Bankers Association (Aba) zuwa 1976 don gudanar da yiwuwar wani nan gaba rajistan shiga sako-sako da kuma cashless al'umma. Yana kuma kafa kwamitin kira Duba Kadan Society kwamitin. A tsakiyar wannan ya Aba shugaban aiki da kai Dale Reistad. The United States ne ba kawai "kontantlöshetens uba" amma kuma da sabanin, ko da yaushe duba kasar mai lamba daya. Cak akwai sun kuma an aika da kamfanonin da abin ya shafa kan biyan bashin na yau da kullum takardar kudi.

A farkon 90 ta kasance ta bakwai biyan bashin a Sweden ta rajistan shiga. A 2000s, adadi ne microscopic 0.1 bisa dari. Tare da lokaci ya ƙare Swedish bankuna haka more kuma mafi cak. Babu wani daga cikin Swedish bankuna ƙarfin halin kawai caji don cak. Sa'an nan, a lokacin da wani Swedish banki karshe sanya shi bi da sauran domin rajistan shiga da rabo da aka shãfe haske tsawon. Kamar yadda son sani shi ne cewa rajistan shiga zamba ne mai laifi a cikin Amurka amma ba su overdraw da bashi da asusun.

A bit na tsabar kudi a cikin tarihin

Long kafin ainihin tsabar kudi amfani ga sauran abubuwa da cewa kudi. Shell amfani kamar kudi a Polynesia. Sauran misalai na "kudi" kasance duwãtsu, gashinsa, kifi hooks kuma ko da dabbobi da yawa. A cikin rashi na yau da kullum da tsabar kudi da oddest biyan bashin wani lokacin amfani. Alal misali, sun yi amfani da baƙin ƙarfe sanduna kamar yadda kudin a Sparta domin an ware daga waje duniya.

Kudu maso yammacin tsabar kudi fara da za a yi amfani da sassan Asiya Ƙananan a 600 BC Near East ya game da abin da muke a yanzu kira Gabas ta Tsakiya. A da lydiske King Croesus wanda a 500 BC fara minting tsabar kudi na azurfa da zinariya. Ya aka kuma kira Croesus kuma daga gare maganar wani immensely arziki mutum. Inda akwai wani kasawa na da daraja karafa amfani da su sun fi mayar da tagulla. Wannan ya faru, misali, farkon a Roma. A lokacin Viking Age aka shigo da yawa tsabar kudi to Sweden daga biyun da duniyar musulmi da kuma daga sassa na Turai. Domin da Vikings ya azurfa darajar, saboda haka yin magana kudin. Saboda haka, ko da rabu amfani tsabar kudi na azurfa, kuma daban-daban azurfa abubuwa a matsayin biyan bashin. Daga baya a cikin labarin, akwai manyan jan faranti cewa amfani da kudi.

A farko Swedish azurfa da tsabar kudi da aka minted a Sigtuna, a shekara ta 1000. A farkon 1500s ya fara ƙidayar pennies. Farko a cikin tsakiyar 1800s ya fara a Sweden amfani da wani shugaban tsabar kudi (rawanin, sa'an nan kuma rawanin), wanda ya kasu kashi 100 aninai. Lokacin da daya daga Sweden watsi da zinariya misali a shekarar 1931 ya bace da ainihin bambanci tsakanin tsabar kudi da kuma takardar kudi. A zinariya misali nufi a praktien na banknotes za a iya yi musayar zinariya daga zinariya ajiye. Wannan kuma banknotes a general aka dogara ne a kan wani wa'adin da kuma amincewa a jihar. A dõgara ga jihar kamar yadda yake a yanzu ya kamata ba dõgara a kan. A kudi gazawarsa ne musamman tartsatsi ne. Amma wajen bad addini a tsabar kudi fiye da bawa zuwa wani unconscionable cashless al'umma wadda ba wahayi zuwa gare su da wani tabbaci a duk.

Banknote tarihi da kuma ci gaban da aka nasaba, ma'adanin na bugu. Sun kasance sũ ne mai ban mamaki wani nau'i na receipts ko bashi da suka zama ainihin biya. Banknotes tillverkads farko a kasar Sin a game da wannan lokaci kamar yadda ainihin tsabar kudi fara zuwa (600 BC). Sa'an nan ya fara yin amfani da banknotes kamar yadda sannu a hankali yada daga kasar Sin zuwa kasashen Turai a tsakiyar zamanai. Yana a zahiri a Sweden da kuma daya a cikin 1600s karo na farko ya dace banknotes a Turai. Da farko, ta Stockholms Banco, sa'an nan da mulki signboards banki da kuma a karshe da Riksbank a karshen 1800s. Tun da farko guga man wasu bankuna fiye da Riksbank ta mallaka rubutu. Next zuwa Sweden, Ingila ta buga banknotes a.

Numismatics - wani m kimiyya da sha'awa,

Numismatics ne nazarin duk tsabar kudi. Yana kuma ya hada tãrãwa fiddling tare da neman Alamu, banknotes da kuma lambar yabo. Kamar yadda wani dan yaro, marubucin aka fascinated da m tsabar kudin taskoki cewa wanzu a library. Tattara tsabar kudi da kuma kamar shi ne ba kawai game da samun fun abubuwa a mallakarsu ya so qwarai, karkatarwa da kuma kunna kuma a karshe da tsayawa a kananan Aljihuna a wani tsabar kudin fayil. Shi ne kuma hanya su koyi game da tarihin a cikin wannan hanya a matsayin hatimi tattara iya zama wata hanya ta koyi game da wasu ƙasashe. Wani lokaci da tsabar kudi ya zama kusan kawai real lamba tare da wani tarihi lokaci.

Tsabar kudin tattara ne daya daga cikin wadanda ayukan hutu inda a can ne mai babbar wallafe-wallafe. A farko Swedish numismatikern ya Elias Brenner. Ya rubuta a karshen na 1600s aikin tsabar kudi wanda take a Swedish kyau zai zama wani abu kamar "tsabar kudin kamus na Svea da Göters kasar". Wannan sashe ne ma a wurin da shawarwarin zuwa ziyarci tsabar kudin majalisar a Stockholm. Akwai ma ban sha'awa tsabar kudin tarin a wasu Yaren mutanen Sweden birane. Tsabar kudin majalisar ne da tsabar kudi da nasu gidan kayan gargajiya da kuma most numismatic tarin a Sweden. Sai ya zama mai raba gidan kayan gargajiya a shekarar 1975 da kuma ya koma kamar wata bayan shekaru da dama to Castle Hill.

Daya daga wannan littafin ta asali sakon ne don nuna yadda duniya ne mafi kuma mafi gabatowa a total cashless mulkin kama karya. A mafi tsabar kudi bace da more ka rasa ban al'ajabi da numismatics rashin alheri da jarrabawa da yankan tare da wuka

a karshen wata duniya-tarihi igiya ko da yake shi ya wuce ta wani babban ɓangare na labarin nan karshe karya. Yanzu yana da rashin alheri lokaci zuwa dakatar da marubucin ya fara rubuta wani littafi game da tsabar kudi da kuma tarihinta. Wannan littafin ne haƙĩƙa mafi game da tsare zamani tsabar kudi. Amma wannan shi ne wani tsanani request. Yaren mutanen Sweden numismatists da tsabar kudin haraji! Gama! Taimaka zuwa yãƙi a adana tsohon da sabon tsabar kudi. Yaƙi da cashless kafa dakarun na tarihi.

Ci gaba ...


Publicerades torsdag 3 oktober 2019 18:29:52 +0200 i kategorin och i ämnena:

Nyhetsbrevet - prenumerera gratis!

"Allah ya yi ƙaunar duniya har ya ba da makaɗaicin Ɗansa [Yesu], su kowane daya ba da gaskiya gare shi kada ya halaka, sai dai ya sami rai madawwami." - 3:16

"Amma da yawa kamar yadda  samu  Shi [Yesu], su ya ba su ikon zama 'ya'yan Allah, a gare su cewa suka yi ĩmãni a kan sunansa." - Yahaya 1:12

"Wannan idan ka furta da bakinka Yesu Ubangiji ne da kuma gaskata a zuciyarka Allah ya tashe shi daga matattu, za ka sami ceto." - Roma 10: 9

So ka sami ceto da kuma samun duk gafarta zunubanku? Addu'a da wannan addu'a:

- Yesu, na samu yanzu ka kuma furta ku kamar Ubangijinsa. Na yi imani cewa Allah ya tashe ka daga matattu. Gode ​​da cewa yanzu ina da ceto. Na gode da ka gafarta mini, kuma na gode cewa ni yanzu wani yaro na Allah. Amin.

Shin ka karɓi Yesu a salla a sama?


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måndag 14 oktober 2019 09:54
Jesus,hjälp katterna Hans o Greta.DOM HAR INTE FÅTT NÅT NYTT HEM ÄNNU.SNART AVLIVAR ÄGAREN DOM.Du har skapat dom käre JESUS.DU vet o DU har makten att hjälpa.JESUS FÖRBARMA DEJ ÖVER DOM.TACK JESUS.

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