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Kontantlöshetens "masiku amakedzana" ndi kalekale

Kuchokera m'buku cashless chiwembu. M'njira zamakono, lingaliro anauka kwa zogula anthu cashless mu 1949.

makhadi. 

Long pamaso pa ndalama leni ntchito zinthu zina kuti ndalama. Chipolopolo ntchito monga ndalama Polynesia. zitsanzo zina za "ndalama" miyala, nthenga, nsomba mbedza ndipo ngakhale ziweto.


Av CashOnly
torsdag 3 oktober 2019 18:29
Bok/Följetong

Ngakhale mu Egypt ndi Ufumu wa Roma ntchito ndalama cashless Mwachitsanzo, pa spannmålsköp. The kampani Western Union anakhazikitsidwa mu mzinda US wa Rochester ku New York State. Iwo inayambira ku 1851 pamene ankatchedwa Mississippi yosindikiza Telegraph Company. Western Union ali makamaka ntchito ndi ndalama anatumiza matelegalamu lonse. mtundu wa makhadi oyambirira anali ndi 1890 atumwi ku Europe. 1914 nayamba pa Western Union ndi kugula cashless ndi ngongole kuti akhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu ukuchita iwo anavomera.

Makadi leni ngongole anayambitsa m'zaka za m'ma 20, United States wosindikiza makampani ngati mafuta ndi unyolo hotelo. Chinthu chimodzi achititsa kuti ntchito kukula makadi achikulire anali kuchuluka motoring pamene makampani mafuta anayamba apereke makadi. masitolo akuluakulu anayamba pa zaka khumi kufalitsa mtundu wa mphatso chizindikiritso makasitomala malonda pa ngongole. Ngakhale m'sitolo NK ntchito pa zaka isanafike leni makhadi mkuwa mphatso. Sweden woyamba "ngongole" kotero otchedwa NK-khadi anali kwenikweni mässingspollett awerengedwa. Mu 60s anapereka NK ndi makhadi omwe m'njira zamakono za chitsanzo US.

Makampani ena anayamba mu makadi ubwana kupereka ngongole ndi madebiti makadi makasitomala awo bwino. Awa anali wolemera ntchito ndi kwathunthu womangidwa kwa kampani mu funso. Masitolo ndi mabizinesi ena ndiye anali ndi makadi awo. Mozungulira 1938 inayamba kulandira makadi wina ndi mzake. Makadi tinapangidwa mwa 30s wa pepala kuti kuchepetsa chiopsezo counterfeiting. John Biggins wa Flatbush Bank National wa Brooklyn anatulukira woyamba ngongole wosindikiza banki mu 1946. Msonkhanowu, wotchedwa ChargeIT Wolumikizidwa kugula pakati makasitomala banki ndi amalonda m'deralo.

Kodi izo zonse kwenikweni anayamba - Kudya Club

M'njira zamakono, lingaliro anauka kwa zogula anthu cashless mu 1949. Munthu wina wotchedwa Frank McNamara anadya malo odyera Major a kanyumba Grill pafupi ufumu State Building imene wake mabungwe ngongole Hamilton Mawu Corporation anali ofesi yake. Ndi iye anali bwenzi lake Alfred Bloomingdale ndi loya Ralph Schneider. Nkhanizo mavuto a kasitomala amene anam'pereka makadi awo osiyana ngongole kwa anansi ndi pamene ambiri a iwo sanathe kubwezera sanathe makasitomala ngongole yake McNamara kampani.

McNamara anapezanso kuti iye anali ndi chikwama chake kulipira chakudya. Polemba siginecha wake pa ntchito khadi anapatsa odyera zingakhale kalata ina zapita. Malinga ndi maganizo ambiri alumikizirana zinthu ziwiri izi kuti McNamara anali mfundo zomwe adzakhale khadi leni ngongole. Mu 1950 iye anayambitsa kampani Kudya Club pamodzi ndi loya wake Schneider.

kampaniyo anakhala mkhalapakati pakati makasitomala ndi makampani iwo anagulidwa. Pa makadi woyamba olembedwa mayina malipiro mabungwe 'pa makadi. Makadi ntchito zambiri drummer kuti kupereka chakudya. Kudya Club makadi Poyamba mlandu makadi kutanthauza kuti iwo analipira zonse ngongole mwezi uliwonse.

Bloomingdale anali kwakanthawi ndi mnzako wa kampani. Apo ayi, iye anali wotchuka kwambiri, wolandira cholowa kwa m'sitolo Bloomingdale ndi förhållade wake wotchuka ndi chithunzi chitsanzo Vicki Morgan. munthu wina zofunika Kudya Club mbiri Matty Simmons. Simmons anali pa nthawi prezidenti wa Kudya Club koma ali otchuka monga TV ndi mafilimu sewerolo.

The American cashless snowball anali tsopano anagubuduza ndi tiri zazikulu chaka chilichonse. Chimodzi anali oyambirira banki inakhazikitsa khadi madebiti anayamba inakhazikitsa mu 1951 ndi Franklin Bank National cha Long Island. Posakhalitsa, Kudya Club mpikisano ndi zambiri makampani amenewa linakula lalikulu zimphona ngongole.

American Express ndi Wells Fargo

American Express anakhazikitsidwa mu 1850 ku Buffalo ku achite lofotokoza makalata utumiki. Kenako kukodzedwa ndi Amakweza ndalama ndi ntchito makampani kuyenda. Henry Wells anayambitsa American Express pamodzi ndi William Fargo ndi John Butterfield. onyamula zitatu ophatikizidwa mu chimodzi. M'zaka za m'ma 50 tili mochedwa, anayamba ntchito ngongole pampikisano Kudya Club. kampaniyo nayenso anali tentacles ake mu dziko TV. American Express wakhala likulu lake ku nyumba zina ku New York.

nthawi A chifukwa American Express anakhazikitsidwa tsopano Wells Fargo wa anthu ndi dzina lomweli. Wells Fargo patapita dzina lina a mabanki padziko lonse lapansi. American Express ndi mbiri Wells Fargo ali ndi zapiringizana kuti n'zovuta kusiyanitsa. Monga American Express anapezerapo khadi koyamba mu 1958 pamene anayambitsa komanso chifukwa ngongole. Ndi makamaka amalonda amene akhala ntchito American Express makadi. American Express zaposachedwapa wakhala akugwira ntchito ndi akuluakulu ritelo unyolo Walmart ndi amene amapereka khadi yolipiriratu Bluebird khadi yolipiriratu.

American Express asamalira palokha kukhala choncho yekha mu mawu a makadi mtengo ambiri sakuchita mwachindunji ndi malonda. Makasitomala amaonedwa kwambiri kukhala mamembala a kalabu yekha.

The akulembedwa zambiri amatikumbutsa mphanga Masonic kuposa bizinesi. kampaniyo bungwe la kugula oddest ndi ntchito kwa makasitomala. Kamangidwe penapake amatikumbutsa Rolls-Royce mankhwala a makasitomala awo. Koma makadi maonekedwe wapamwamba sayenera kulinganizidwa ndi galimoto yodula. Mmalo mwake iwo ali "wokalamba yoola trolley ndi ndowe." Zimachitika nthawi mu bukhu. Kudana ndi khadi la ngongole afika ubongo wolemba kusinthana kwa mfundo ndi mphezi maganizo.

Mabaibulo ambiri wokwanira American Express makadi chake anali "wotchuka khadi" yakhala ikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chirichonse kuchokera Elvis kuti Zlatan. Ena rappers kuti mawu kwa khadi wake wokondedwa nkomwe. Bukuli mwina ali kale anapatsidwa kuona kukhala chabe zoona. Iwo tizinthu mfundo zotsutsana ndi makhadi ndi cashless ena. Koma buku la alinso "hatbok" kwa cashless n'kumachita (akuyankhula za Zlatan) lolembedwa ndi mpira openga wolemba.

Koma chidani imayendetsedwa ndi zoona. Dyngkärran pamwamba Komabe, zosiyana chifukwa cha synapsfyrverkeri lachibadwa. Monga polimbana monga mwana zolaula ndi tsankho mosavuta amakhala munthu chifukwa cha kukwiya ndi kunyansidwa monganso mavuto padziko nkhani m'bukuli kukhala payekha wolemba. Pakhala paokha nthawi zonse.

Nthawi zina kusintha buku chinenero wambiri ndipo chitachitika ndi wokhutira, ndipo kenako nkubwerera ku "ofunda insaikulopediya mtima". Ndiroleni ine tsopano anatsegulira mbali za munthu bukhu. Ngati Zlatan kuwerenga bukuli, ine ndikuyembekeza iye amayenera Mwachitsanzo ngati mkulu wapamwamba ali ndi kamakhala kuchotsa ake "mwanaalirenji" American Express makadi. Kuchita zimene amachita bwino. Tepi ngongole ya mpira wa. Yamba ndiye mpira kutali mu nkhalango pamene palibe munthu akhoza kuwapeza. Kodi izo zonse kukhala nyama zakutchire moyenera kukodza pa khadi. Kodi wolemba kukhala wokwiya maganizo? Werengani buku ndi kupeza chifukwa chake.

MasterCard ndi Visa - oyamba

MasterCard (anayambitsa 1966) ndi m'malo bungwe ndi amene mukupanga nawo mabanki zikwi zingapo kuti anthu kuposa chinthu

Companies m'lingaliro yachibadwa. Pali kampani yochepa imene amagulitsa ziphatso khadi. mbiri MasterCard oyambirira ndi zogwirizana ndi magulu awiri banki kwa makhadi. Interbank ndi WSBA. Inasintha ntchito kwa ngongole wotchedwa Master Lamulira. Master mlandu kenako anadzatchedwa MasterCard. Chiyambi cha Kutacha ku kampani lonse khadi anali mgwirizano pakati Master Lamulira ndi Mexico banki Banco Nacional. mwatsatanetsatane za nkhaniyi nkhondo malamulo kuti idawuka Worthern Bank sikuloledwa kuti agwirizane Master Lamulira. likulu MasterCard panopa mumzinda wa Purchase ku New York State.

Bwanji ndi ofanana MasterCard ndi mukupanga bungwe. kampaniyo wokwatibwa ndi gulu malonda wopangidwa makamaka a mabanki. Pali limasonyeza amphamvu ndi Bank of America anali banki loyamba anayamba amvekere Visa kuloŵedwa BankAmericard 1958 khadi Choyamba akhoza BankAmericard ntchito kokha mu California. Izo zinali zoletsedwa kuchita banki malire boma. Izi analambalala izo ndi pulogalamuyo khadi kuti mabanki ena. makhadi ambiri ngongole

ankapangiranso ku Bank of America kukhala sanali kutchulidwa kampani ndi membala akumeneko National BankAmericard.

nthawi A pamaso amasonyeza Dzina limeneli panopa pamene iwo anapatsa khadi lawo loyamba ngongole otchedwa Entrée. Zinali madebiti khadi kuti anali zogwirizana ndi ndiye kumene akutulukira makompyuta kwa kutsimikizika otchedwa BASE Ine ndi BASE II. Lolingana machitidwe Master Lamulira otchedwa INAS ndi INET.

Mbali ya View amene anali kunja kwa United States anagulitsidwa mu 1974 ndipo anakhala wocheperapo gulu la mabanki otchedwa IBANCO. kampaniyo anawatcha National BankAmericard m'kupita kwa Visa USA. IBANCO anadzatchedwa potsiriza pang'ono Visa International. The yamakalata loyamba khadi kampani ngongole anali mu mzinda wa Fresno, pa njira imene Joseph Williams. Pomwepo adadza mailings m'mizinda ina ya ku California. polojekiti chinadetsedwa nthawi zonse wa onse kutsutsa ndi chinyengo. 1970 anasintha maina onse amasonyeza. Kudalirana kwa makhadi m'mamawa ndi US mabanki anasiya khadi lawo dongosolo ndipo anagwirizana kapena Master Lamulira kapena BankAmericard amene anadzakhala MasterCard ndi Visa.

View analandira mu 1987 kuti agwire kusamalira lonse ritelo maukonde Interlink makadi banki (maukonde waukulu wa mtundu uwu mu United States). Mu '90s anapezerapo Anzeru Khadi Visa Cash kuti akhoza yodzaza ndi ndalama kudzera ATMs. View anakankhira chitukuko ku lamizeremizere maginito kuti makadi Chip kuphatikizapo chinachake wotchedwa Mnzanu Program. Mu Manhattan, magombe Citibank ndi Chase Manhattan mu 90s mochedwa khadi mayeso amene zinalephereka kwathunthu. Nthawi zambiri, anthu mlandu khadi kamodzi kokha. kugwirira ntchito limodzi ndi Internet kufufuza kampani Yahoo anayamba kulenga kugula tsamba pa Intaneti. Onaninso anatsegula mgwirizano utkonkurerat ndithu ndi Microsoft kuti anthu akhoza kuchita wotuluka awo banki pa kompyuta. Amasonyeza liku- lu ku Fresno ku California.

American Express ndi Kudya Club kadi kudzipereka pamene Visa ndi MasterCard satero. Zikatero, kwenikweni membala mabanki kuti apereke makadi. An kusiyana zofunika pakati makampani ngongole ndi ena kotero kunena banki akuchitira, pamene ena satero. Visa ndi MasterCard makadi deta kulankhulana maukonde losiyana mwaukadaulo osiyana kwambiri. MasterCard dongosolo, wotchedwa Banknet, Visa a VisaNet.

Visa ndi MasterCard Motero olamulidwa ndi mabanki membala monga ogwiritsa khadi Ndipotu kwathunthu mmanja a mabanki izi. The mpikisano pakati Visa ndi MasterCard ndi pafupifupi yopanda chifukwa ambiri mabanki amene ali mamembala a bungwe limodzi komanso ndife ziwalo za ena.

Discover ndi Sears

Discover Services Financial kapena aafupi Discover ina yaikulu US ngongole makampani. Idamangidwa mu 1985 ndi gulu la kampani ndalama Dean Witter ndipo anakhala mbali ya Sears.

Discover anakhala kampani wodzilamulira mu 2007. Iwo amapereka khadi Discover Khadi. The luso khadi Intaneti otchedwa Discover Network ndi Kugunda. Liku- lu mu wakunja kwatawuni Chicago. 2008 anagula Discover ndi Kudya Club wa gulu ndalama Citigroup.

Sears, ngondo & Co. anakhazikitsidwa mu 1886 ndi Richard Sears ndi Alvah C. ngondo. Sears anakhala pa nthawi kuphatikizapo yaikulu makampani US makalata-dongosolo. Sears unakambidwanso mogwirizana ndi inawomba nyumba yaitali Sears Tower mu Chicago tsopano lotchedwa Willis Tower. The inawomba nyumba yaitali limene kwa nthawi yaitali anali nyumbayi m'dzikoli anali mpaka 2004 Sears.

Wovunda-slayers

Cheke kungachititse anachokera ku 1200s lapansi. Koma ntchito kwenikweni anavula kokha pamene macheke anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi osula golide mu England. Macheke akhala monsemu, nthawi zina amagwiritsidwa ntchito monga ndalama. Chitsanzo cha ichi chinali pamene asilikali mu 50s mu Hong Kong ntchito macheke monga malipiro ndalama. Aliyense malonda anasaina cheke mu Chinese ndi aliyense kugula. Izo zikhoza kuchitika msilikali miyezi ingapo anaona cheke imene iye yekha anali nazo zake.

Mawu khadi ndipo cheke ukugwirira ntchito mawu banki mofananamo. Chofukizira nkhani analemba cheke cha ndalama zomwe ingawapangitse ndiye awombole ku banki. Afufuze nkhani akhoza amatamanda (yerekezerani makhadi). Wina anafotokoza kuphunzitsa cheke monga "Baibulo nkhono ya khadi banki" a. Mu kontantlöshetens ubwana analankhula zambiri za cheke kuthetsa anthu za cashless lapansi.

Munthu kale mu vurmade 60 m'zaka kwa cheke ndi cashless izi dera limene John Diebold. kampani yake akamafufuza Diebold Gulu analenga angapo kompyuta ofotokoza zopezera mabanki mu zaka khumi. Diebold maganizo mukopedwe George Mitchell amene anali ndi udindo mkulu mu Reserve Federal (US chapakati banki). Yotsirizira akuyesetsa kuchititsa mabanki US kusinthana kachitidwe pa kompyuta. Iwo ankanena kuti macheke anali mtengo, zomwe zikufanana kwambiri mfundo lero ndalama.

Zinali anthu monga awa zokhudza gulu la American Osunga Ndalama Association (Aba) kwa 1976 kufufuza n'zotheka m'tsogolo cheke lotayirira ndi cashless anthu. Komanso anapanga komiti otchedwa Chongani Zochepa Society Komiti. Pakati pa izi zinali Aba mutu wa zokha Dale Reistad. The United States ndi "kontantlöshetens atate" komanso otsutsana, nthawi zonse onani dziko la nambala wani. Macheke palinso atatumizidwa makampani nkhawa pa malipiro a ngongole zonse.

Mu 90 oyambirira anali malipiro chiwiri mu Sweden ndi cheke. Mu 2000s, ndi chithunzi ndi tosaoneka peresenti 0,1. Kufufuzidwa nthawi inatha Swedish mabanki Choncho koposa. Palibe mabanki Swedish dala yekha nawuza kwa macheke. Ndiye, pamene Swedish banki potsiriza anapanga, adamtsata ina ya cheke ndi tsoka linasindikizidwa kutalika. Monga chidwi ndi chinyengo cheke ndi mlandu mu United States koma overdraw nkhani ngongole.

A pang'ono ndalama m'mbiri

Long pamaso pa ndalama leni ntchito zinthu zina kuti ndalama. Chipolopolo ntchito monga ndalama Polynesia. zitsanzo zina za "ndalama" miyala, nthenga, nsomba mbedza ndipo ngakhale ziweto. Popeza ndalama zonse ndi malipiro oddest nthawi zina amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, iwo ntchito zitsulo monga ndalama ku Sparta chifukwa iwo anali olekanitsidwa dziko lakunja.

Kum'mwera ndalama zinayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu madera a Asia Minor mu 600 BC Near East anali zimene tsopano kuyitana Middle East. Icho chinali lydiske Mfumu Croesus amene 500 BC anayamba minting ndalama ya siliva ndi golidi. Iye amatchedwanso Croesus ndi zace mawu a munthu kwambiri olemera. Kodi panali kuchepa kwa zitsulo wapatali ntchito kwakukulukulu mkuwa. Izi zinachitika Mwachitsanzo, kumayambiriro Rome. Pa Viking Age zinkachokera ndalama zambiri Sweden kuchokera dziko la chisilamu ndipo kuchokera kumadera a ku Ulaya. Pakuti Scandinavia anali kufunika siliva, titero ndalama. Choncho, ngakhale ndalama lotha siliva ndi zipangizo zosiyanasiyana siliva mbampasa. Kenako nkhaniyo, panali lalikulu mkuwa mbale onena za ndalama.

Woyamba Swedish ndalama asiliva anawagwiritsa zinapangidwa ku Sigtuna kuzungulira chaka 1000. Kumayambiriro 1500s anayamba kuwerenga makobidi. Kuyambira m'ma 1800s inayamba mu Sweden ntchito ndalama mutu (akorona kenako akorona), zomwe unagawidwa masenti 100. Pamene mmodzi wa Sweden anasiya golide muyezo mu 1931 mbisoweka kusiyana leni pakati pa ndalama ndi ngongole. Golide muyezo ananena mu praktien wa banknotes akhoza umasinthanitsidwa golide kuchokera malo golide. Izi ndi banknotes ambiri inachokera pa lonjezo la ndi chidaliro mu boma. kukhulupirira A boma monga izo ziriri tsopano sayenera kudalira. The kulephera chuma ambiri zedi. Koma chikhulupiriro m'malo zoipa ndalama kuposa kapolo ndi unconscionable cashless anthu omwe si olimba mtima konse.

mbiri Banknote ndi chitukuko kumagwirizana ndi yosindikiza mabuku. Iwo poyamba anali nawo mawonekedwe malisiti kapena ngongole asanakhale malipiro enieni. Banknotes tillverkads yoyamba China pafupifupi nthawi yofanana ndi ndalama leni anayamba kubwera (600 BC). Kenako anayamba kugwiritsa ntchito banknotes monga pang'onopang'ono kufalitsa ku China ku Ulaya Ages Middle. Iwo anali kwenikweni mu Sweden ndi wina mu 1600s kwa nthawi yoyamba anapereka banknotes yoyenera Europe. Choyamba, Stockholms Banco, ndiye Zakumwamba signboards banki ndipo potsiriza Riksbank pa mapeto a 1800s lapansi. Kale mbamuikha mabanki ena kuposa zolemba za Riksbank lomwe. Pafupi Sweden, England ali kusindikizidwa banknotes pa.

Numismatics - ndi chidwi sayansi ndi chizolowezi

Numismatics ndi kuphunzira ndalama zonse. Kumaphatikizaponso msangamsanga fiddling ndi kufufuza zizindikiro, banknotes ndi mendulo. Ngakhale mnyamata wamng'ono, wolemba anachita chidwi ndi wandiweyani Catalogs ndalama zinalili pa laibulale. Kusonkhanitsa ndalama ndi ngati si chakuti zinthu zosangalatsa nazo kuchengeta kupindika ndi potembenuka potsiriza wotseka m'matumba yaing'ono chikwatu ndalama. Ndi njira kuphunzira za mbiri chimodzimodzi monga sitampu yosonkhanitsa kungakhale njira kuphunzira za mayiko ena. Nthawi zina ndalama kuti pafupifupi yekha kukhudzana weniweni ndi nthawi zakale.

Ndalama kusonkhanitsa ndi imodzi mwa masewera amenewo kumene pali mabuku yaikulu. Woyamba Swedish numismatikern Eliya Brenner. Iye analemba pa mapeto a 1600s ntchito ndalama amene mutu mu Swedish bwino ungakhale chinachake monga "Ndalama dikishonale ya Svea ndi Göters dziko". gawo Zimenezi malo ndi kuwapempha kuti pitani Ndalama nduna mu Stockholm. Palinso ndalama zopereka chidwi mizinda ina Swedish. Ndalama nduna ndi ndalama m'nyumbayi ndiponso yaikulu Numismatic msonkhamsonkha ku Sweden. Inasanduka owonetsera zakale osiyana mu 1975 ndipo anasamukira angapo patapita zaka zambiri kuti Castle Hill.

Imodzi mwa uthenga waukulu bukuli ndi kuonetsa mmene dziko ndi zambiri akuyandikira okwana cashless mwankhanza. The ndalama zambiri kutha m'pamene kutaya numismatics zodabwitsa mwatsoka amakopeka wake ndi kudula ndi mpeni

pa mapeto a dziko zinachitika chingwe ngakhale umadutsa mbali yaikulu ya nkhani ndiyeno potsiriza akuswa. Tsopano ndi nthawi kuti asiye pamaso wolemba akuyamba kulemba buku ndalama ndi mbiri yawo mwatsoka. Bukuli ndithu zimenezi n'cholinga ndalama ano. Koma ili ndi pempho lalikulu. Swedish numismatists ndi okhometsa ndalama! Yanjanani! Kuthandiza nkhondo pofuna kutchinjiriza wakale ndi watsopano ndalama. Amenyane cashless kukhazikitsidwa zigaŵenga wa mbiri.

Anapitiriza ...


Publicerades torsdag 3 oktober 2019 18:29:52 +0200 i kategorin och i ämnena:

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"Mulungu anakonda dziko lapansi kotero kuti anapatsa Mwana wobadwa yekha [Yesu], kuti aliyense wokhulupirira Iye asatayike koma akhale nawo moyo wosatha." - 3:16

"Koma onse amene  adamlandira  Iye [Yesu], kwa iwo anapatsa mphamvu yakukhala ana a Mulungu, kwa iwotu, akukhulupirira dzina lake." - Yohane 1:12

"Kuti ngati udzabvomereza m'kamwa mwako Yesu ndiye Ambuye, ndikukhulupirira mu mtima mwako kuti Mulungu anamuukitsa kwa akufa, udzapulumuka." - Rome 10: 9

Mukufuna kupulumutsidwa ndipo machimo anu onse akhululukidwa? Pemphero ili:

- Yesu, ndikulandira inu tsopano ndi kuvomereza inu monga Ambuye. Ine ndikukhulupirira kuti Mulungu anamuukitsa inu kwa akufa. Zikomo kuti tsopano ndikukhala opulumutsidwa. Zikomo kuti takhululukira ine ndi zikomo kuti panopa ndili mwana wa Mulungu. Amen.

Kodi inu mulandira Yesu mu pemphero pamwamba?


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Jesus,hjälp katterna Hans o Greta.DOM HAR INTE FÅTT NÅT NYTT HEM ÄNNU.SNART AVLIVAR ÄGAREN DOM.Du har skapat dom käre JESUS.DU vet o DU har makten att hjälpa.JESUS FÖRBARMA DEJ ÖVER DOM.TACK JESUS.

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